Bacterial, viral or fungal infections arise in the gums and teeth produce acids and toxins that usually erode and cause inflammation of the gums. The inflammation makes gums swollen, red and spongy that increases the tendency to bleed and weakens the stability of the teeth by recession. Bleeding gums is more commonly seen in adults, since in case of children, it is mostly due to injury due to improper brushing. In case of adults or the aged, it is often found to be related to a disease. Females have higher incidences for bleeding gums than males. Marginal gingivitis is most common as bleeding from gums comes usually near the base of the teeth.
Which may be caused by a blow, insertion of foreign substances, tooth picking, dentures, improper brushing, flossing... It may also get injured from irritation of chemicals and acids in foods, drinks, mouth fresheners, tooth whiteners and medicines.
Conditions can also cause bleeding gums. For example, there could be gum problems or infection of gums, retracted or receded gums, weak and spongy gums. It is also a common incidence of dental problems such as caries, excessive tartar or plaque formation, periodontitis.
Mouth sores can also spread infection to gums to cause bleeding.
Bleeding and clotting disorders, deficiency of coagulation factors, Thrombocytopenic purpura, hemophilia, and leukemia can cause bleeding as well. Systemic, such as liver disorders, kidney disorders, arterial or capillary diseases, diabetes, or heart disorder can also reflect as bleeding gums.
Nutritional and physiological, such as vitamin C and K deficiency will lead to bleeding disorders.
changes can also cause gums to bleed occasionally, as well as poor oral hygiene, due to infection and weakness.
could also cause bleeding gums, because continuous usage of blood thinners, such as Aspirin, heparin therapy, pain-killers and treatment procedures like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, can also cause bleeding from gums. Hot food and chemicals can end up burning the gums, further resulting in bleeding. For example, some people still follow the practice of placing pain relieving tablets on the gum adjacent to the painful tooth, which invariably causes burns. Certain rapidly spreading infections can damage the blood vessels of the gums resulting in bleeding as well.
For persistent bleeding gums, there are some essential tests :
oral examination of teeth and gums
X-rays of teeth and jaw
Tc, Dc, Esr, Hb%, sugar, calcium, urea, and creatinine Coagulation factors and serum prothrombin time Bleeding and clotting time.